How the system of reservists in Ukraine is formed, the military reserve of the first and second line, what is the mobilization reserve, which of the reservists are mobilized, read in the TSN.ua article.
Volodymyr Zelenskyi commissioned the military leadership of Ukraine to create personnel reserves.
Military reserve in Ukraine
The military reserve is an important part of the Armed Forces and other military formations, consisting of persons who are conscripted citizens. The entire male population of the country between the ages of 18 and 60, regardless of health conditions, is conscripted. Women can also become conscripts if they wish.
All conscripts form the so-called mobilization reserve of the country, that is, they are reservists.
Reservists are included in the reserves of the Armed Forces, provided that they are fit for military service in peacetime or wartime and have not reached the limit of being in stock.
Reservists who are on military registration go into service if necessary.
Reservists serve in the military reserve of the Armed Forces of Ukraine or other military formations. Such persons are mostly ex-servicemen and, depending on the legislation, remain in the reserve voluntarily or forcibly.
How the reservist system is formed in Ukraine
The system of the military reserve in Ukraine began to be created in 2006, it gained further development in 2014.
There are several species in Ukraine reserve:
- operational (I and II stages or ОР-1 and ОР-2),
The operational reserve is the base for additional equipment of military units or units.
Operational reserve of the first line (OR-1)
These are former military personnel, participants of the Anti-Terrorist Operation (ATO) and the Joint Forces Operation (JOO).
OR-1 includes military personnel or conscripts who have signed a contract for service in the reserve. Contracts are concluded directly with the commanders of military units, so further service in the reserve takes place there. In peacetime, reservists participate in military meetings at the call of the commander, and in wartime, combat units are staffed with these reservists. Reservists are guaranteed their job and salary for the duration of the military training, and after it ends, a cash allowance is paid.
Reservists not older than 40 years of age are accepted for service in OR-1. The minimum term of the contract is from three years.
It was the servicemen of the operational reserve — OR-1 — who, in the first days of the war, arrived at the deployment site at the call of the commander of the military unit.
Operational reserve of the second stage (OR-2)
All former military personnel, conscripts who served until 2014, or members of the ATO and OOS, who did not sign a contract for service in the reserve, are enrolled in the operational reserve of the second line (OR-2).
The OR-2 reserve is formed by the Centers for recruitment and social support, it can be involved only in a special period.
The reserve of the second stage consists of the build-up reserve and the territorial reserve.
The build-up reserve includes reservists and military conscripts, intended for the staffing of military administration bodies, military units, military educational institutions, institutions and organizations that are not included in the combat composition of the Armed Forces, in particular those formed in a special period (strategic reserves), military educational institutions, institutions and organizations, new management bodies, military units and units of other military formations.
Territorial reserve includes reservists and conscripts assigned to equip military units and units of territorial defense.
This reserve includes conscripts who are assigned to manpower military units, territorial defense units (positions that do not determine combat capability), as well as conscripts who can be involved in manning training centers with the aim of filling shortages in the personnel of military units of the Armed Forces forces, other military formations, after appropriate training (obtaining the appropriate military accounting specialty).
The specified reserve is formed from citizens, in particular reservists, military conscripts, who voluntarily participate in ensuring national security and defense of the state, and includes citizens who do not have age and physical limitations regarding conscription and can be recruited to complete the Armed Forces and other military formations in a special period.
Which of the reservists is primarily called up during mobilization
During martial law, conscription is not carried out. Staffing of combat and rear units takes place through mobilization, which is carried out in four rounds.
During the first and second waves of mobilization, operational reserve ОР-1 and ОР-2 are called up. Then the personnel of the mobilization reserve are involved. Reserve officers, those who have graduated from military departments, but have no practical experience of military service, are called up for the third stage of mobilization. During the last, fourth wave, all conscripts who have not completed military service, but who do not have age or health restrictions, are called up.
How many will be mobilized in each turn is a military secret.
How will the personnel reserve be created now
By in words military expert Mykhailo Zhirokhov, brigades, battalions or reserves are created not by the decree of the president, but by the directive of the General Staff of Ukraine. The military plans to form certain brigades. Each brigade has a staff list that determines how many people, equipment, ammunition, etc. are needed.
According to Zhirokhov, if the General Staff begins to plan the creation of an additional reserve, accordingly, the same amount of weapons, uniforms, etc. is being prepared. In addition, “every unit needs officers, and 80% of those who are mobilized are people with private or sergeant ranks. And a company needs at least 4 officers,” the expert notes.
As Zhirokhov notes, if the General Staff has planned the staffing of a certain unit for March, then only the necessary number of people will be mobilized. “A million people will not mobilize, it doesn’t work that way.” Reserves are formed since the beginning of the war and mobilize only those persons who have a certain military specialty that is now needed at the front.